Brain Tumors: Types, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

A mass or collection of aberrant brain cells is known as a brain tumors. Your brain is housed inside a highly rigid skull. Any growth within such a constrained area can lead to issues.

Malignant (cancerous) or non-cancerous brain tumor types are also possible (benign). The pressure inside your skull may rise as benign or cancerous tumors enlarge. This has the potential to be fatal and can result in brain damage. Visit a super speciality hospital in Lucknow today to address any brain tumor symptoms that you may be encountering.

Types

Over 150 different brain tumor types have been identified by researchers. such as glial (made up of glial cells in your brain) or non-glial (formed on or in the structures of your brain, including nerves, blood vessels, and glands), primary tumors are classified by medical professionals as benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Effective brain tumor diagnosis would depend massively on the relevant brain types

Your spinal column or cranium can develop a variety of brain cancers as well.

Benign brain tumors

  1. Chordomas – The bottom of your spine and the base of your skull are frequently the sites of these slow-growing tumors’ onset. Most of them are benign.
  2. Craniopharyngiomas – Typically, a piece of your pituitary gland is where these tumors develop. The proximity of the brain tumor to important brain areas makes them challenging to remove.
  3. Glomus jugulare – These tumors are typically found at the top of your jugular vein, just below the base of your skull. They represent the most typical variety of glomus tumor.
  4. Meningiomas – These primary brain tumors are the most prevalent kind. Typically, meningiomas grow slowly. They develop in the meninges, the tissue layers that cover your brain and spinal cord and protect them. Meningiomas can occasionally be cancerous.
  5. Pineocytomas – Your pineal gland, which is buried deep inside your brain and secretes the hormone melatonin, is where these slow-growing tumors develop.
  6. Pituitary adenomas – Your pituitary gland, which is found at the base of your brain, is where these tumors develop. The pituitary gland in your body produces and regulates hormones. Pituitary adenomas typically grow slowly and have the potential to overproduce pituitary hormones.
  7. Schwannomas – Adults frequently get these benign brain tumors. They originate from the Schwann cells in your cranial nerves or peripheral nervous system. Nerve impulses are helped in their conduction by Schwann cells. The most typical schwannoma is an acoustic neuroma. Your vestibular nerve is affected by these tumors.

Cancerous (malignant) brain tumors

Gliomas make up around 78% of malignant primary brain tumor types. These tumors form in the glial cells that support and surround nerve cells.

Glioma varieties include:

  1. Astrocytoma – These tumours are the most prevalent glioma subtype. They develop in glial cells with a starlike shape known as astrocytes. Although they can develop in numerous areas of the brain, the cerebrum is where they most frequently do.
  2. Ependymomas – In your brain, these tumors frequently develop close to the ventricles. Ependymal cells give rise to ependymomas.
  3. Glioblastoma (GBM) – Astrocytes, a type of glial cell, give rise to these malignancies. The astrocytoma that grows the fastest is the GBM.
  4. Oligodendroglioma – These rare malignancies start in myelin-producing cells (a layer of insulation around nerves in your brain).

Another kind of malignant brain tumor is a medulloblastoma. These tumors start at the base of your skull and grow quickly. The majority of paediatric malignant are these type of brain tumors.

Symptoms

The brain tumor symptoms and indicators of a brain tumor vary widely and are influenced by the size, location, and development rate of the tumor.

Brain tumor-related general signs and symptoms may include:

  1. A headache’s new onset or pattern change
  2. Headaches that gradually get worse and occur more frequently
  3. Vomiting or nausea without cause
  4. Vision issues including double vision, blurry vision, or reduced peripheral vision
  5. Gradual loss of feeling or motion in a leg or arm
  6. Problems with equilibrium
  7. Speech impediments
  8. Terribly exhaustion
  9. Confusion in routine situations
  10. Decision-making challenges
  11. Inability to obey simple instructions
  12. Changes in behavior or personality
  13. Seizures, especially in someone who has never had seizures before
  14. Hearing issues

Diagnosis

A physical examination and review of your medical history are the first steps in brain tumor diagnosis.

A thorough neurological evaluation is part of the physical examination. Your cranial nerves will be tested by your doctor to determine whether they are healthy. These nerves have their roots in your brain.

With the aid of an ophthalmoscope, which is a device that shines light through your pupils and onto your retinas, your doctor will examine the inside of your eyes.

This enables your physician to examine how your pupils respond to light. Additionally, it enables your physician to examine your eyes up close to check for any optic nerve swelling. The optic nerve may change as a result of increased intracranial pressure.

The doctor might examine you for:

  • Muscle strength
  • Coordination
  • The capacity for mathematical computation

Following the physical examination, your doctor can recommend additional tests. These might consist of:

CT scan

Your doctor can scan your body more thoroughly with a CT scan than they could with an X-ray machine. Either contrast or no contrast can be used in this. By visiting a super speciality hospital in Lucknow, these procedures can be carried out in an effective manner.

A special dye is used to create contrast during a CT scan of the head, which enables medical professionals to see some structures, such as blood vessels.

MRI

Your doctor may use a specialized dye during a head MRI to aid in the detection of tumors. A CT scan uses radiation, whereas an MRI doesn’t, and typically provides much more detailed images of the actual structures of the brain.

Angiography

A dye is injected into your artery during this procedure, typically in the groyne area. Your brain’s arteries receive the dye. It enables your doctor to observe how the tumors’ blood supply. When the surgery is taking place, this information is helpful.

Skull X-rays

Specific X-rays can reveal if there have been any fractures or breaks in the skull’s bones due to brain tumors. These X-rays can detect calcium deposits, which are occasionally found inside tumors. If your cancer has spread to your bones, calcium deposits could be present in your bloodstream.

Biopsy

During a biopsy, a little bit of the tumor is removed. It will be examined by a specialist known as a neuropathologist. Whether the tumor cells are benign or malignant will be determined by the biopsy. Additionally, it will reveal whether the cancer began in your brain or another area of your body. This is a essential step of brain tumor diagnosis.

Treatment

Several factors influence brain tumor treatment, including:

  1. The location, size, and type of tumor.
  2. The total number of tumors.
  3. It’s your age.
  4. Your overall well-being.

Benign (non-cancerous) brain tumors can usually be removed surgically and do not usually recur. It frequently depends on whether your neurosurgeon can safely remove the entire tumor.

Treatments that are well tolerated by adult brains, such as radiation therapy, may prevent normal brain development in children, particularly those under the age of five.

To treat a tumor, doctors frequently use a combination of therapies. Among your treatment options are:

  1. When possible, neurosurgeons remove the tumour via brain surgery (craniotomy). To minimise damage to functional areas of your brain, they work very carefully, sometimes performing surgery while you’re awake (you won’t feel pain).
  2. In this type of treatment, high doses of X-rays are used to destroy brain tumor cells or shrink the tumor.
  3. Radiosurgery is a type of radiation therapy that uses highly focused radiation beams (gamma rays or proton beams) to destroy tumors. It is not considered surgery because no incision is required (cut).
  4. Brachytherapy: A type of radiation therapy. It entails surgically implanting radioactive seeds, capsules, or other implants into or near the cancerous tumor.
  5. Chemotherapy: This treatment uses anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells in the brain and throughout the body. Chemotherapy can be administered as an injection into a vein or as a pill. Following surgery, your healthcare provider may suggest chemotherapy to kill any cancer cells that remain or to prevent any remaining tumor cells from growing.
  6. Immunotherapy, also known as biological therapy, is a type of cancer treatment that employs your body’s immune system to combat the disease. The main goal of the therapy is to stimulate your immune system so that it can do its job more effectively.

Conclusion:

A cancerous or non-cancerous brain mass or growth of abnormal cells.Tumors can begin in the brain, or cancer from another part of the body can spread to the brain. New or worsening headaches, blurred vision, loss of balance, confusion, and seizures are among the symptoms. There may be no symptoms in some cases. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are all options for brain tumor treatment.

Address brain tumor effectively by getting in touch with a super speciality hospital in Lucknow.

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